Katmai National Park

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When we planned the trip to Katmai National Park, we were thinking brown bears, brown bears and more brown bears. As we did prior to our visit, many people are fascinated by the bear cams located at Brooks Falls – http://explore.org/live-cams/player/brown-bear-salmon-cam-brooks-falls. Little did we know that not only are the brown bears amazing but there is so much else to make Katmai unique. Our visit there was truly special.

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Katmai, located on the Alaska Peninsula and nearly 5 million acres in size, includes 15 volcanoes, magnificent scenery, and is home to North America’s largest population of protected brown bears – about 2,000 of them. It is one of the least-visited of our national parks, with only 37,818 visitors in 2015, ranking 53rd in visitation out of the 59 national parks.

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Initially, we assumed we would stay at Brooks Camp, but we quickly found out that lodging there is booked up well over a year in advance. The person I spoke with suggested Kulik Lodge as our base. She said we might be happier there as it is smaller, with fewer people, and without the day-trippers from Anchorage and we could still make a day trip to Brooks for bear-viewing. This proved to be brilliant. We were very happy we were at Kulik. It’s truly a first class wilderness lodge. Manager Chaad McBride and his outstanding staff do everything possible to make a stay memorable and exactly what you’d like.

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Kulik Lodge is a remote fishing lodge on Nonvianuk Lake and the Kulik River in the northern part of the park. At 6:30 a.m. we boarded a seven-passenger plane at Katmailand Air in Anchorage for the flight to Kulik. The 90-minute flight took us over breath-taking mountains and a brown bear ambled out alongside the gravel runway when we landed at Kulik.

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Kulik Lodge is composed of the lodge building, individual cabins, and numerous outbuildings. It’s located in a prime fishing location with Nonvianuk Lake and Kulik Lake connected by the 1 ½ mile long Kulik River.

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We were greeted by the wonderful staff at Kulik, treated to a great breakfast (which was only a sample of the excellent meals at Kulik) and introduced to our guide for the day, Grey. Tom and I are not fishermen so going to a fishing camp in the first place was a unique experience but we were game to try fly fishing. Grey was a good teacher and very patient as we learned a bit about casting from the lake shore.

We then went out in a boat to the Kulik River where we got into the river and started fishing. Yes, actually clambering in and out of the boat into the river. Getting back in was much more of a challenge than getting out. Throughout the day, we each managed to catch several rainbow trout, which are catch and release. Personally, I had always seen people standing in a cold river in waders and thought they were slightly crazy but I found out just how much fun it actually is and why you could really get “hooked” on it. We, of course, never made the “fish board” but we had a great time.

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While we were fishing, a bear swam across the river, leaving her cubs on the other side. They were very noisy and obviously not very happy about it but it seemed as if she was telling them – “just be quiet and wait, I’ll be back for you” – much like any mother might.

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Meals at Kulik are served family-style and were incredible. The chef there is outstanding. Lunch was served at noon and included homemade soups, salads and a variety of sandwich makings. The complimentary bar is open from 4 to 11, with appetizers at 6 and dinner at 7. The first evening we were there we had fried chicken, salmon, pulled pork, cole slaw, green salad, mashed potatoes, corn on the cob, bread, jam and either lemon meringue pie or blueberry ice cream for dessert. Every meal was just as amazing as the first.

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Mealtimes provided a time to get to know some of the other guests and discuss everyone’s activities for the day. There were only 23 guests at Kulik so it was a rather intimate group and we met interesting people. The fireplace in the lodge also served as a gathering and visiting place.

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Since it never gets truly dark during the summer, some guests chose to go night fishing while we decided to walk around the property and just enjoy the peace and serenity and turn in a bit early. We had had a very full day.

Coffee on the front stoop at 5:30 a.m. provided a good start to the day which began with a hearty breakfast and a 6:45 boarding of float planes to Brooks Camp for bear-viewing.

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The first stop at Brooks Camp is the ranger station for the required bear orientation. Bears have free range and the right-of-way and there are very specific guidelines for visitors. We saw a bear in the midst of the camp very shortly after our arrival. On our walk to the bear-viewing at the falls, we came around a corner of the trail and saw a sow and two cubs about thirty yards away coming toward us. Everyone scrambled to get off the path and out of her way. They are a bit intimidating and you definitely don’t want to get too close!

In Katmai, abundant salmon means abundant brown bear populations. Daily fish catch for most bears runs to 10 to 20 salmon a day and, nourished with such high-fat fare, male brown bears can grow to 1500 pounds or more than three times the size of interior grizzlies. Coastal brown bears and interior grizzlies are both members of the Ursus arcto species. The difference in size is attributable in part to the abundance of salmon in coastal and near-coastal areas.

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We saw a sow and three cubs on the river bank as we approached the Brooks Falls viewing platform and then watched a number of bears fishing for salmon. It’s rather astounding how quickly these giant animals can move in order to catch salmon. The Park service has a pretty efficient system for allowing a certain number of people on the platform at once and rotating them after an hour to give someone else a chance.

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Walking back toward the river viewing area, we came across a juvenile male coming down a path toward us. Once again it was a scramble to get out of his way – believe me, I was well back when I snapped this photo.

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We spent quite a lot of time at the Brooks River viewing area watching bears fishing and what appeared at times to be playing with each other in the river. They were fascinating to watch.

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Another possible day trip from Kulik is to the Valley of 10,000 Smokes. On June 6, 1912, residents of the northern Alaska Peninsula experienced one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history. The Novarupta volcano eruption sent ash over 100,000 feet in the air and released 30 times the volume of magma as the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. When Robert Griggs in 1916 gazed into the former Ukak River valley and saw the transformation from the eruption, he saw tens of thousands of smokes curling up from its fissured floor and dubbed it “The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes.” Even though those fumaroles have since died, the valley is still a unique and otherworldly landscape.

On our last day at Kulik, Bryce was our guide and we went fishing again but the weather turned on us a bit making a hot shower welcome after standing in the rain in the cold river. It cleared off later in the afternoon so Bryce took us on a tundra hike. Treeline in Katmai is less than 1000 feet so most of the park is above treeline and exposed to extreme weather. Plants that survive best hug the ground but moose, caribou, red fox, wolves, lynx and a number of other animals make this their home.

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Our last evening at Kulik we were treated to a presentation by Sonny Petersen on the history of the lodge and Katmai. Sonny’s father, aviation pioneer Ray Petersen, in 1947 founded his Northern Consolidated Airlines. Petersen was committed to fishing conservation and was granted a permit to build and operate five “Angler’s Paradise” camps, making him the park’s first concessioner. Thus, he provided both the places to stay and, with his airline, the way to get there. Petersen was an avid southwest Alaska promoter wanting to attract the tourist “who goes places just to be amazed.”

Katmai National Park is a special place and Kulik Lodge was the perfect place for us. On the last evening, a young woman, Annie, from Beijing took this photo of us and later emailed it to me. It captures the bittersweet of our last evening at Kulik. We created great memories.

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For more information:

https://www.nps.gov/katm/index.htm

http://www.katmailand.com/kulik-lodge

http://www.katmailand.com/

http://akgeo.org/

Posted in Alaska, Katmai National Park, National Park, National Park Travels, Nature Photos, Travel, Travels in the U.S., Uncategorized, Western U.S. National Parks, wilderness | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

http://www.zazzle.com/columbine_pillow-189057853778802039?

Colorado Columbine Pillow – wild columbine – Colorado state flower – reminder of the wild flowers in the mountains

Source: http://www.zazzle.com/columbine_pillow-189057853778802039?

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Ody the Odyssey Owl travel contest

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Odyssey Travel in Lincoln Nebraska is an outstanding full service travel agency. For those of us who love to travel, a good travel agency is invaluable.

Ody the Odyssey Owl is the agency travel mascot and Odyssey Travel is sponsoring a Where’s Ody? travel contest. Just guess where Ody is at any given time. It’s easy to enter and you have multiple opportunities to win. Click: Odyssey Travel  to enter the contest.

Ody at Kilauea Lighthouse

Ody is an inveterate traveler “whoooo” totally understands the value of a great travel agent!

He is always up for an adventure and loves going new places and meeting new people. He also really likes having his picture taken in many places. Ody, however, is somewhat mischievous and likes to make people guess where he is. So he changes locations frequently.

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Ody is featured on the Odyssey Travel website and if you guess where Ody is in the photos and are correct, you will be entered in a drawing to be held at the end of each month. The monthly winning entry will become the proud owner of a handcrafted and numbered Ody who is most anxious to set out on adventures with you. At the end of the year a grand prize drawing will be held from all correct entries for a $250 gift certificate to be used with Odyssey Travel within one year.

Visit www.neodysseytravel.comsee where Ody is traveling at any given time and enter for your chances to win.

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Kobuk Valley National Park

cloudsKobuk Valley National Park is so remote there are no visitor facilities in the park at all. Kobuk Valley National Park is so remote that you have to bring your own sign to get the iconic national park sign photo. Kobuk Valley National Park is so remote a visit definitely requires planning. Basically the only ways to access this park are by small plane or boat on the Kobuk River. At 1,750,000 acres, Kobuk is the ninth largest national park and one of the least visited.

Located 35 miles above the Arctic Circle, Kobuk calls to mind images of snow and ice but a summertime visit proves that preconception very wrong. In the Kobuk Valley, the boreal forest gives way to the tundra. The Kobuk River bisects the park with the Baird Mountains to the north and the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes to the south. Kobuk is home to many animals, including grizzly bears, wolves, foxes, moose, Dall’s sheep and the Western Arctic Caribou Herd, the largest herd in America.

flying back to Kotzebue  near Kotzebue

In researching for the trip, it quickly became apparent that a trip to this park located entirely north of the Arctic Circle would be an adventure. It is remote and wild with no roads, no specific entrances or campgrounds. Everything we read emphasized that you are completely on your own in this park and you need to be prepared to be self-sufficient. The ever-present “weather-permitting” applies to every step of the way.

We flew to Kotzebue, Alaska, a small native village on the Chukchi Sea. This village is located on a small peninsula so landing there involves water on pretty much all sides. In Kotzebue, the Northwest Arctic Heritage Center houses a museum as well as the National Park service administrative center. The Nullaġvik Hotel served as our base during our stay and we were presented with certificates stating that we had journeyed north of the Arctic Circle.

Kotzebue   Nullagvik Hotel

The site of Kotzebue, or Qikiktagruk (as it is called in Iñupiaq), has been occupied by Iñupiat Eskimos for at least 9000 years and is believed to be the oldest settlement in both North and South America. “Qikiktagruk” was the hub of ancient Arctic trading routes long before European contact due to its coastal location near a number of rivers.

As this was part of a more extensive trip, we were not prepared to backpack and camp so Tom arranged for an air taxi to take us into the park, drop us off for a few hours of hiking and then return to pick us up. Of course, here again the “weather-permitting” applies.

dunes2      Great Kobuk Sand Dunes

The night before our flight into the park I did not sleep well. I kept having visions of being out there completely by ourselves with no communication whatsoever and bears or caribou appearing. Thoughts of our bear spray having a range of about eight feet, weather stranding us there for days, and any number of unknowns did not make for a restful night. (Understand that I’m usually the one who can sleep through anything.) Tom had put together a very small survival kit to carry in his backpack and of course we had rain gear, gps, first aid kit, snacks, water, etc. so the chance of anything really bad happening was actually quite unlikely.

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When the pilot handed us a fold-out wooden national park sign to take with us, we knew we were in for a different experience. He landed on the sand dunes, dropped us off and took off to continue on a flightseeing tour with another passenger. As the plane disappeared over the horizon, we set the sign out and took the picture,  shouldered our backpacks and set out for a hike on the dunes.

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Somehow it seems very strange to be hiking on sand dunes and know you are north of the Arctic circle. These dunes soar up to two hundred feet high and the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes cover 25 square miles. Great Kobuk Sand Dunes constitute the largest active sand dunes found in the Arctic.

dune grass  Kovet Creek

Kovet Creek acts as a dividing line between the dunes and the forest and tundra. The dunes were formed from the windblown outwash of melting glaciers and a special combination of topography and eastern and northern winds keep the dunes moving and inhospitable to vegetation. We saw some tracks but no animals.

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As afternoon clouds began to form and move closer and closer, the “weather-permitting” warning came to mind and we were quite happy to see our plane in the distance.

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He set down again on the dunes and we scrambled aboard for the flight back to Kotzebue. It was definitely a day to remember.

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Posted in Alaska, hiking, Kobuk Valley National Park, National Park, National Park Travels, Nature Photos, Travel, Travels in the U.S., wilderness | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Chaco Culture National Historical Park

 

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The mention of Anasazi ruins brings to mind cliff dwellings and a “lost” civilization. No longer called Anasazi but rather Ancestral Puebloans, these people left massive ruins on the floor of Chaco Canyon which are mind-boggling. Many questions are raised and the imagination is ignited.

In northwestern New Mexico, Chaco Culture National Historical Park is one truly amazing place that I find fascinating every time we visit. To reach Chaco, the last stretch can be a bit challenging. After turning off Highway 550, the first five miles are paved, the next ten are pretty bad dirt road and the last six are really bad dirt road before reaching the paved park road. There is a campground and a very nice visitor center but no other facilities so one needs to be prepared with lunch, snacks and, of course, plenty of water. This high desert area is very hot in the summer and cold in the winter. Spring and fall are ideal times to visit.

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Pueblo Bonito

Who were the people who left these testaments to their civilization? Without the benefit of the wheel, metal tools, or beasts of burden in a land of little rainfall, how did they manage to build these magnificent structures? Why did they choose this arid canyon? Why did they abandon them? Most answers to these questions are to a degree conjecture but with continued archeological research and scientific advances in the field, the “educated guesses” continue to evolve and the puzzle pieces become a little clearer.

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Pueblo Bonito

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1,100 to 1,200 years ago this canyon was the center of the Chacoan world with monumental architecture, far-reaching trade, and a complex society. Massive great houses rose three and four stories high and contained hundreds of rooms. Water collection and retention systems, dams, and canals were in place. Over 400 miles of road networks linked the great houses in the canyon to over 200 sites throughout the region. Prehistoric staircases provided access from mesa tops to the canyon floor. In addition to the dozen or so great houses, vast numbers of smaller community ruins are found throughout the canyon and the entire San Juan basin.

Pueblo Bonito is the core of the complex and the largest great house. Built in stages between the mid-800’s and early 1100’s. Pueblo Bonito rose at least four stories high, had perhaps as many as 800 rooms and 40 kivas, encompassing almost three acres. The great houses of Una Vida and Peñasco Blanco were also begun in the mid-800’s. Hungo Pavi, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo Alto and many others followed.

 

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Pueblo del Arroyo

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Hungo Pavi

Hungo Pavi

Using masonry techniques unique for the time, Chacoans continued to expand their massive, multi-story buildings for over 300 years. Construction of some great houses spanned decades or even centuries and although the masonry styles varied somewhat over time, they remained distinctively Chacoan. The massive beams (over 200,00 of them) and all other wood used in construction had to be harvested from distant forests and transported to the sites manually. Many original beams and latillas are still visible today and through the use of dendrochronology dating of the cutting has been possible.

Corner Doorway

Since the earliest archeological expeditions to Chaco in the 1800’s, many theories of use have been proposed. With continued archeological research, theories have evolved from the original ideas of massive habitations with a large population to more ceremonial buildings with pilgrimages from surrounding communities and a smaller permanent population.

Petroglyph

Buildings’ orientations, internal geometry and geographic relationships consistent with solar and lunar alignments indicate an extensive knowledge of the heavens. Astronomy apparently played an important role in the lives of the Chacoans. Several solstice markers are present throughout the ruins and on Fajada Butte a three-slab-and-spiral-petroglyph provides a solar and lunar calendar.

Masonry

So many questions continue to be unanswered, not only about how Chacoans built their structures and how their society was organized, but also about the reasons for abandonment. Even as recent as twenty years ago, it was often said that these people “vanished.” However, it is now accepted that the Anasazi are the ancestors of the modern Pueblo people of Arizona and New Mexico and that these ancient people simply moved – some to the south and some to the west. It was probably not a mass migration but rather a somewhat gradual movement. Then the next question is: why did they move? That one hasn’t totally been answered. There was no more building after about 1130. There was a long period of drought at that time and diminishment of nearby resources. There is little or no evidence of violence as a factor. Perhaps it simply was not sustainable to remain in Chaco Canyon and therefore was time to leave.

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Each visit to Chaco reveals something missed on the last visit and raises new thoughts and questions. It is definitely worth the rough road in to get there.

For more information on Chaco:

https://www.nps.gov/chcu/index.htm

 

 

Posted in Anasazi, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, History, National Park Travels, New Mexico, Parks, prehistoric ruins, Travel, Travels in the U.S., Uncategorized, Western U.S. | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Big Bend National Park

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National Park #42 was checked off our bucket list with a visit to Big Bend National Park in Texas. February seemed like a good time to visit and it was. The temperatures were great for hiking, spring break visitors had not yet arrived, and all the facilities in the park were open.

A visit to this vast and little visited park means there is plenty of room to roam by yourself. High season for this park is from November 15 to April 15. The two visitor centers close to the river are closed in the summer. We talked to several people who had been there in July and, with temperatures around 110°, that sounded pretty miserable.

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Big Bend became a national park in June 12, 1944 after a lengthy process. In 1933, Texas established the Texas Canyons State Park using 15 school sections owned by the state. Lands forfeited for non-payment of taxes were added and the name was changed to Big Bend State Park, and by October 1933 it included about 160,000 acres. In 1935 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill that authorized the establishment of Big Bend National Park but it took another nine years before a deed for about 700,000 acres was formally presented to President Roosevelt and on June 12, 1944 Big Bend was established as a national park by Congressional Act. It was designated an international Biosphere Reserve in 1976.

Big Bend now encompasses 801,163 acres (1,252 square miles) making it the 14th largest national park and the 8th largest in the Lower 48. However, the 2015 visitation was just 381,747, with total visitation since inception in 1944 of only15,431,497.

Morning fog over the Chisos

In 2015, of the 59 national parks, Big Bend ranked 41st in visitation. This tells you something about the location of the park and also why you can drive for miles and miles without ever meeting another car. Hundreds of miles from a major airport and with medical facilities at least a hundred miles away, Big Bend is very remote by Lower 48 standards. You have to be going there specifically to get there. It is not a place you would accidentally stumble upon.

The park is a vast part of the northern Chihuahuan desert with the Chisos Mountains rising like a fortress basically in the center.

Desert landscape

We stayed at the Chisos Mountains Lodge in the Chisos Basin (elevation 5400 ft.), which because of its central location, was the ideal place for ranging out to visit the other areas of the park.

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The Lodge is the only place in the park with a restaurant. Fortunately, the food was very good. The lodge restaurant also offered a magnificent view of the basin and through the “Window” overlooking the desert plain below.

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The Window is a v-shaped opening, or pour off, in the mountains through which all rain and meltwater from the basin drains. The view through the window is particularly nice at sunset.

Sunset

Our room faced the opposite direction but we had the magnificent Casa Grande as a view from our patio. No phone, no tv, no cell service and really sketchy wi-fi – really low-key and a relief to leave the constant primary election coverage behind.

Sunset on Caasa Grande

Our first morning in the park, as we drove down out of the Chisos, we spotted four bears not far off the road. After taking numerous pictures, we headed straight to the ranger station at Panther Junction to report our wildlife sighting. The ranger there said it was a sow and three yearling cubs. I kept hoping we would see a javelin or a mountain lion to round out our visit, but that was not to be.

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Big Bends’ topographic variety supports a diversity of life including 1200 plant species. Many migratory birds winter in Big Bend and 450 bird species have been counted here. We met a number of “birders” in the park and visitor centers have checklists available to record sightings.

Almost immediately we began learning a lot about cacti and yuccas, which actually was more interesting than it initially sounds.

Yucca Flats         Sotol   Cholla

Chihuanan desert vegetation covers the majority of the park. With over 1200 plant species, including numerous cacti and yucca, as well as other succulents masquerading as cacti or yucca, there is a great deal of variety.

On a nature trail, we came across a sign showing three kinds of prickly pear cactus:

Engelmann – spiny     Prickly Pear - Spiny

Blind – no spines          Prickly Pear - Blind

Purple-tinged                  Prickly Pear - Purple-tinged

We asked questions about whether the purple were distinct species or simply variations of the others and actually got several different answers so we’re really not sure.

A winding, narrow dirt road leads off the highway to the historic Hot Springs which was probably the first tourist destination in the area. J.O. Langford built a bathhouse over hot springs on the edge of the Rio Grande and offered “the cure” to visitors until the early 1960’s. Ruins of a motel and post office remain, as well as the foundation of the bathhouse where visitors can still bathe in the hot springs.

Hot Springs store   Hot Springs motel

Hot Springs

Several places we read that this desolate desert landscape had once been grassland which was a little hard to believe. Then reading about the large numbers of sheep and goats that were run on the range and the overgrazing, it became clear why it is nearly uninhabitable now.

Croton Peak

It’s easy to imagine the Rio Grande as this majestic and grand river but in actuality it’s a shallow, meandering, slightly lazy stream. Part of that is the time of year and a bigger part, the fact that it is depleted along its 1,896-mile length by agriculture and industry. The river forms the border between Mexico and the U.S. state of Texas. Where we were you could easily walk across the river, but everyone is warned that there is a large fine for doing so and if you are in Mexico without your passport you’re in an especially tight spot.

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We took numerous hikes. The hike to the balanced rock involved some bouldering and was rather steep near the end but certainly worth the effort.

 

Hike to Balanced Rock2 Through balanced rock

Nearly all the hikes offered absolutely no shade, so the steep high walls of the Santa Elena Canyon provided a nice cool change.

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We enjoyed our visit to Big Bend and then set out toward home across the unrelenting miles and miles of west Texas.

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Fort McPherson National Cemetery

It may sound a bit morbid but old cemeteries have always fascinated me. It’s interesting what you can figure out from wandering around – or at least, what you think you figure out. It is very different wandering an old cemetery in Nebraska or Colorado or any number of other states and imagining the Old West pioneers, ranchers, and homesteaders, however, than it is wandering through any of the national cemeteries.

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Recently we visited Fort McPherson National Cemetery near Maxwell, Nebraska. My father, mother and stepfather, and maternal grandparents are buried there and Fort McPherson is where Tom and I plan to also be buried.

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Fort McPherson is located in the Platte River Valley which played a very important role in the history of western movement in the U.S. The “Great Platte River Road” was the major pathway for traders and trappers in search of furs, settlers seeking land, miners headed for the riches of the Rocky Mountains and the first transcontinental railroad linking the east and west coasts.

Fort McPherson was established on September 27, 1863, to provide protection for the building of the railroad and the pioneers trekking west on the Oregon and California trails and to keep peace with the local Native Americans. The fort, initially named Cantonment McKean, was located on the banks of the Platte River, at the mouth of Cottonwood Canyon, a strategic location near the junction of the North and South Platte Rivers. Cottonwood Springs, a natural seep in an abandoned bed of the river, was the only spring for many miles along the river. For a time the fort was known as Post of the Cottonwood Springs. The fort was built by troops of the 7th Regiment Iowa Volunteer Cavalry using cedar logs cut in Cottonwood Canyon and was completed in October 1873.

The name was changed to Fort McPherson February 20, 1866, in honor of Major General James B. McPherson who was killed in action in 1864 during the Battle of Atlanta. Numerous expeditions were launched from Fort McPherson during the Indian Wars.

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Fort McPherson National Cemetery was established on March 3, 1873, on the Fort McPherson Military Reservation. As the Army closed frontier posts in Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, South Dakota and Nebraska, soldier and civilian burials from 23army post cemeteries throughout the west were relocated to Fort McPherson. The fort itself was abandoned in 1880 but the national cemetery was maintained.

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Fort McPherson is the final resting place of four Medal of Honor recipients:

  • Private Daniel Miller, Medal of Honor recipient for action in Arizona Territory during the Indian Wars.
  • Sergeant Emanuel Stance, Medal of Honor recipient for action in Texas during the Indian Wars.
  • Sergeant George Jordan, Medal of Honor recipient for action in New Mexico Territory during the Indian Wars.
  • Private First Class James W. Fous, Medal of Honor recipient for action in the Vietnam War.

There are 84 group burials which represent 398 decedents. One of these contains the remains of 28 enlisted soldiers killed in what came to be known among whites as the Grattan Massacre. Another contains the remains of 6 members of Company F, 3rd U.S. Cavalry who drowned in a flash flood.

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Sixty-three Buffalo soldiers from the 9th and 10th U.S. Cavalry, originally interred at Fort Robinson, were transferred to Fort McPherson in 1947 when Fort Robinson was deactivated.

Spotted Horse, a Pawnee Indian scout; Baptiste Garnier who served as chief of scouts at Fort Robinson; and Moses “California Joe” Milner, who served as a scout for both Gen. George A. Custer in the Black Hills and Gen. George Crook, are all interred at Fort McPherson.

There are 541 unknowns at Fort McPherson. Many of these were relocated from other post cemeteries and at the time the markers were too weathered to allow identification.

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Fort McPherson is a small cemetery in a quiet valley in western Nebraska, but tells an important story. A visit to a national cemetery impresses with the sense of peace and reverence and the rows upon rows of gravestones seeming to stand at attention remind one of the many who were willing to serve our country and for whom we need to be very thankful.

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